237.131 Week 11

1. In each of your assignments for Studio this year you made work that responded to a concept integral to the pōwhiri process – Mihimihi, Tūrangawaewae, Ātea, and Hākari. Define the concept that corresponds with the project you feel was the best thing you made in Studio all year. (25 words)

Turangawaewae refers your belonging to a land as well as the understanding of all connections between places, it corresponds with the kaitiakitanga and whakapapa. Turangawaewae acknowledges existing relationships and knowledges rooted in specific sites.

2. Discuss the work you made: describe its physical attributes, the concept/s behind it, and the wide context in which you made it. (100 words)

Annie Wu Final Collage.jpgWu, Annie. Screen studio Tūrangawaewae, inspired by Motuihe Somes Island, Wellington. Collage. August 2016.

Motuihe Somes Island stands in Wellington harbour in all its beauty. The ferry over is idyllic in itself, but once on the island, an overwhelming sense of tranquility drifts over you. It’s hard to imagine such a place with a rather grim and tragic history. Motuihe Somes Island was once a pā of refuge for Maori, as well as a quarantine site and enemy alien “internee” camp in both world wars. The Tūrangawaewae brief pushed me to explore the ideas of kaitiakitanga and mana within a place. Thus connecting me with both the explicit existence of a space and the intangible knowledge’s of the island.

3. Erna Stachl discusses decolonisation and Mana Wahine in her lecture. How did you consider gender and/or indignity and/or the intersections between the two in your work? Use key ideas in the lecture and the texts by Ani Mikaere and Linda Tuhiwai-Smith to support your arguments. (75 words)

The role of gender was not a prominent topic in this piece as i focused primarily on the communication of the island itself. The intersection of gender and indignity in relation to knowledge rooted within the Island is a compelling notion. However, my work primarily reflected a lack of indignity. Focusing on the more contemporary history of Motuihe Somes Island being a quarantine and internee camp, i chose to emphasise the displacement and isolation of individuals.

237.131 Week 11

237.131 week 10

1. Inspired by Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture and Tze Ming Mok’s essay, create a piece of creative non-fiction in which you talk about your own cultural identity. You must make at least one connection with a significant moment in the history of Aotearoa (i.e like Tze Ming Mok did with the attack on Chi Phung, the National Front protest, and the Seabed and Foreshore hīkoi), and you must draw from your own lived experience (200 words).

She stands in the middle of two cultures. Born in New Zealand, of Chinese descent. She has an identity that is split in half, she is no more one than the other. Does this make her unique? Special? This makes her different.

New Zealand. A place where cultural difference is welcomed. But she knows first hand, this is a lie. Every day, she is defined by her apparent ethnicity, every day she remains in the margins.

She’s that “Asian bitch”.

Getting used to it is not that same as acceptance.

Like Sake Aca said racial taunts hurt. Racism corrupts all aspects of life, it made it onto the rugby pitch in mid-2015 and its made it into the streets in late 2016. It’s inevitably becoming more blatant.

Her and Aca are minorities now. But, there will come a time where minorities are history, there will come a time where equality will flourish. There will come a time where ALL are indifferent. That day is not today, perhaps not even in her lifetime. But, where there is hope there is change. And she is an advocate for that.

2. Go to the library and ask for one of the 237.131 2 hour loan books. Find the name of a creative practitioner in that book, then search for that name on the book catalogue PCs (upstairs, level B – don’t use Discover). Locate an image of their work (preferably in print) that fits with your creative writing. Scan this and upload it to your blog, remembering to include a caption.


Brownson, Ron. Home AKL: Artists of Pacific Heritage in Auckland. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland Art Gallery Toi O Tamaki, 2012. Print.

Edith Amituanai approaches intimacy as if she was an onlooker. This resonates with my writing, my cultural identity is the intimate topic and by removing my immediate presence, i present the audience will a peculiar unfamiliarity.

Works cited

Sherwood, Sam, Brendon Egan, Tony Smith, and Nicole Mathewson. “Fijian Rugby Player Sake Aca Speaks of Anguish at Racial Taunts.” Stuff. N.p., 28 July 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

237.131 week 10

237.131 – WEEK 9

1. Draw (collage/photograph/paint/whatevs) the stages of the pōwhiri in a series of illustrated panels. This can be as sophisticated or low-fi as you like 0 it just needs to clearly communicate the pōwhiri process to an unfamiliar audience. Imagine you are drawing it for people who have never been onto a marae. You may like to pick  a particular time period (i.e. the 1400s, 1890s, 1950s, 2010s, the future) and allow that to inform your stylistic decisions. Remember to induce relevant key terms and to clearly name each part or the pōwhiri. Use “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfield) to inform your drawing.


Stages of Powhiri (Left to right): Karanga, Tangi, Whaikōrero & Waiata, Harirū & Hongi, Kai.


A series of calls exchanged by the women from both Tangata Whenua and Maanuhiri (visitors) as they advance into the Marae. This often signifies the beginning of the Powhiri. Higgins and Moorfield  state that “Karanga makes acknowledges the manuhiri, the dead, and the object of the visit”.


Translates to weep. At this stage in the Powhiri “people will  remember the dead and may tangi (weep) (7).

Whaikōrero & Waiata 

“Whaikōrero expands on the information shared during the karanga” (7). Usually only iwi men are allowed to speak.

Waiata translates to sing.

Harirū & Hongi

Harirū refers to a hand shake.

Hongi is a greeting through the “pressing of noses”(9). It “represents the passing of breath the two people” (10).

Kai (food)

The sharing of kai is significant to manaakitanga (respect and hospitality). Everyone eats kai together.

2. Melanie Wall identifies some of the more common Māori stereotypes that have appeared in New Zealand’s media. Take one of the examples of representations of Māori from Dick’s lecture and discuss it in relation to Wall’s ideas (100 words).

“Quintessential Maori”

Dick’s lecture introduced Melanie Wall’s four key (colonial) stereotypes – comic other, the natural athlete, radical political activist and the quintessential. Focussing on Wall’s quintessential Maori stereotype, it brings forth the contemporary manifestation of a colonial perspective by seeing Maori as “primitive and exotic” (4). This stereotype notably objectifies Maori woman as a “Dusty Maiden”. Consequently, Maori women are sexualized and exploited through exoticism. Particularly, in the tourism industry where the Pakeha male gaze was prominent. This apparent “feminised reinvention of Maori identity” is solely based on the objectivity of the Maori female body and novelty of Maori culture (4).

Works cited

Moorfield, John C., and Rawinia Higgins. “Marae Practices.” Ngā Tikanga O Te Marae. N.p.: n.p., 2004. 1-12. Print.

Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the ‘Māori Race’ in the Media”. New Zealand Geographer. 53(2) 1999. Print.

Whyte, Dick. “Ideology and Stereotypes in Aoteroa ,New Zealand.” Massey University Lecture. 10A02, Wellington. 29 Sept. 2016. Lecture.

237.131 – WEEK 9

237.131 – WEEK 8

1. Select one of the examples of a presentation of poverty or wealth in Aotearoa New Zealand in Dr. Greg Gilbert’s lecture. Upload an image of this example to your blog. Describe the example and the context in which it was made, then discuss it in relation to one of the key concepts Greg introduced in his lecture, using sources other than Greg to support your ideas. These sources may be ones that Greg references in his lecture (100 words).

The ideology of there being “undeserving” and “deserving” poor people.

Screen Shot 2016-10-10 at 11.46.35 pm.png
Jeffries, Lee. Skid Row. Digital image. Leejeffries. N.p., 2016. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

As capitalism rises, increasing amounts of New Zealander’s have found themselves on the other side of the poverty line. An ideology where the poor can be split into two categories  of “deserving” and “undeserving” emerges. In Lee Jefferies’s, Skid Row we automatically assume the man has done something to be homeless, rather than uncontrollable external factors. Throughout our everyday lives, we see negative marginalised homeless representations, consequently, we do not sympathise with him as much as a child in poverty for example. The homeless man becomes more “deserving” to be poor than the child. According to Oorschot the “deservingness criteria” is dependent on three variable sets, “socioeconomic and demographic characteristics”, “opinions and perceptions”, and “basic values and attitudes” (33).

2. Using Chapters 13 and 14 of Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History, draw up a timeline of significant events in Aotearoa from the end of WW2 (1945) to the year of the ill-dated Sesquicentennial (1990). Your timeline should include at least 20 key moments, with the more noteworthy events highlighted to indicate their importance. Be creative in your approach.


1945 – End of WW2

1945 – Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act

1947- Legislation changed the official use of “native” to “Maori”

1949 – Māori Community Centre established in Auckland

1951 – Maori Womans Welfare League

1953 – Maori Affairs Act

1961 – The Hunn Report was published (analysis of social and economic positions of Maori)

1962 – NZ Maori Council established

1966 – Māori migration peak. 62% of Maori population were living in urban centres

1967 – Maori Affairs Amendment Act

1970 – NZ Maori Council convene Young Maori Leaders Conference at UOA

1970s – Nga Tamatoa pushes to have Te Reo Maori introduced in schools

1970 – Protests at the Official Waitangi Day proceedings.

1972 – Maori Language Day declared (14 September 1972)

1975 – Treaty of Waitangi Act

1975 – Maori land march

1977 – Waitangi Tribunal convened

1978 – Takaparawhā Bastion Point Occupation ends after 17 months (began after Maori land march as well as the Raglan Golf Course Occupation)

1979 – He Taua Group confronts UOA students for practising a mock Haka

1980 – Maori and Pasifika community rallies against unemployment rates with TEP (Temporary Employment Programme (1970)) and MACCESS (Maori Access).

1980 – Raglan Golf Course Occupation land reinvested to Tainui Awhiro

1980 – NZ’s economy declines further, leaves Maori’s disproportionally affected. Many were many redundant. 700 Maori lost their jobs in the shut down of South Auckland’s Freezer works

1992 – Maori unemployment high of 25.4%. Maori welfare dependancy rises

1981 – Springbok ruby tour of NZ

1983 – Te Whānua O Waipareira Trust (health fund)

1985 – Te Roopu Rawakore O Aotearoa; The National Unemployed and Beneficiaries movement

1986 – Labour’s Puaop-Te-Ata-Tu Policy. This policy seeks to develop Social Welfare in New Zealand, aims to tackle racism and created a more united nation

1990 – 150th Anniversary of Te Tiriti O Waitangi signing

Works cited

Oorschot, Wim Van. “Who Should Get What, and Why? On Deservingness Criteria and the Conditionality of Solidarity among the Public.” Policy & Politics. 1st ed. Vol. 28. N.p.: Policy, n.d. 33-48. Print.

Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter 13 – Māori Affairs 1945 – 1970.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 382-450. Print.

237.131 – WEEK 8

237.131 – WEEK 7

1. Identify one key point and/or theme from the Week 7 lecture. Find an academic source for that key point/theme. Paraphrase the academic source text relating to the key point/theme. Remember to accurately reference the source using the MLA style (50 words).

Societal racism parallels between NZ and U.S.

As the economic recession settled in so did institutional racism towards Pacific Islanders, parallels between America and Aotearoa became apparent. Racism became common and appropriate, especially in the media. Victimised pacific Islanders felt the need to form an alliance, much like the American Black Panthers movement that fought societal racism. Motivated by the African-American Civil Rights Movements, the Polynesian Panthers Movement sought equality and “revolutionary intercommunalism” according to Robbie Shilliam in “The Polynesian Panthers and the Black Power Gang: Surviving Racism and Colonialism in Aotearoa New Zealand” (2).

2. Using examples in“All Power to the People” by Melani Anae (2012), describe one of the art/design/creative responses to the socio-political situation that confronted Pacific Islanders in Aotearoa in the late 20th century (50 – 75 words).

gallery.php.jpegPopohardwear LTD. Digital image. Popo Hardwear. N.p., n.d. Web.

Popohardwear is the brainchild of artist David Siliga, it confronts Pacific Islander’s social-political situation in Aotearoa in our current contemporary culture. Siliga’s unfiltered and raw social commentary is illustrated through t-shirts. By turning put-downs into humorous slogans of pride and identity, Silgia breaks the barriers of perceived societal cliches and empowers Pacific Islanders. In an attempt to eradicate racism, Popohardwear addresses pacific heritage within Aotearoa through t-shirts and in turn raises awareness.

“POPO is an abbreviation for People Of the Pacific Ocean”, HARD is the badge of resilience and WEAR is the package that contains the product which is who WE-AR(E)” – Popohardwear

3. Write a synopsis of the documentary ‘DawnRaids’ (Fepulea’i, D. 2005) (50 – 75 words).

The post-war economic boom (1960-1970) created a shortage of labour throughout New Zealand. Migrants were encouraged to come and work. As jobs were plentiful, the immigration law was waived, many migrants stayed on illegally with visitor permits. As the economy plummeted in 1974, Pacific Islanders were targeted as “scapegoats”. A campaign to return all unlawful migrants conceived the Dawn Raids and triggered institutional racism. In Particular, Pacific Islanders in Auckland were targeted and victimised. Movements such as the Polynesian Panthers arose from the injustice.

Works cited

Shilliam, Robbie. “The Polynesian Panthers and the Black Power Gang: Surviving Racism and Colonialism in Aotearoa New Zealand.” Black Power beyond Borders. Vol. Part II. N.p.: Palgrave Macmillan US, n.d. 107-26. Print. Contemporary Black History.

Anae, M. (2012). All Power to the People – Overstayers, Dawn Raids and the Polynesian Panthers. In Mallon, S., Māhina Tuai, K., and Salesa, D. (Eds). Tanager O le Moana. Wellington, New Zealand: Te Papa Press.

Siliga, David. “About Us – Popohardwear.” Popohardwear. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2016.

Fepulea’i, D. “Dawn Raids.” Online Documentry. NZ On Screen, New Zealand’s Screen Culture Showcase. Isola Productions, 2005. Web. 21 Sep 2016.

237.131 – WEEK 7

237.131 – WEEK 6

1) Both Mane-Wheoki and Anderson describe how Māori visual and material culture has been framed by predominantly western accounts. Discuss this, using both readings to support your discussion (100 words).

In both texts various examples of Māori visual and material culture framed from a western perspective are prominent. In the 1770’s, there are no records of the Europeans by Maori. Maori commentary is only evident in the 1800’s. Right from the beginning, Maori and their culture was recorded from an “extremely one-sided” and “exclusively foreign gaze” (Atholl 133). According to Jonathan Mane Wheoki, the “idea of art arrived with Europeans”, New Zealand’s art history was “colonised and mythologised” by the British. Wheoki questions “Maori art” and the self-consciousness of Maori after European contact (7). Ethnographic and customary art is also the product of European contact, as prior to colonisation there was no need for marking art as “Maori” (Wheoki, 8).

2) Choose an example of 20th century art/design from anywhere in “Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History”. Upload the example to your blog and explain how the work can be considered from a Māori worldview (consider origins, customary practices etc) (100 words).

IMG_2789.JPGWu, Annie. The Price of Change. 2009. Tangata Whenua. N.p.: Bridget Williams, n.d. 41. Print.

The Price of Change by Matthew McIntrye Wilson (Taranaki, Tihati, Ngā Māhanga), reconstructs coins from New Zealand and the Pacific Islands into brooches. Atoll suggests these offer an “alternative narrative of nineteenth-century history” (41). The Hei-Tiki puts Maori in the centre, rather than the opposing western oriented view of Aotearoa’s history. As the Hei-tiki represents the “advent of mankind”, Wilson’s work symbolises the whenua (land) in relation to the Tangata (people) (41). As currency was only introduced after colonisation, it also exemplifies the Crown in relation to Maori. As seen in Wilson’s work, the coin is the head, deemed the most tapu part of the body, it takes a dominant and controlling position.

Works cited

Anderson, Atholl, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Tangata Whenua : An Illustrated History. n.p.: Wellington : Bridget Williams Books, 2014. Print.

Mane-Wheoki, Jonathan. Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand. Auckland: University of Auckland, 2011. Print.

237.131 – WEEK 6

237.131 – WEEK 5

1) Summarise Anderson, Atholl, Binney, Judith and Harris, Aroha. “Chapter 9: Wars and survival”. Tangata whenua: An illustrated history. Bridget Williams Books, 2014. Print.

Chapter 9 in Tangata Whenua focuses on the New Zealand civil wars and the survival of Maori throughout 1860 to 1872. The civil wars were between the crown and Maori over land ownership, starting with the Taranaki conflict. As the British crown adopted a violent method of resolution, fighting quickly spread through “the middle of the North Island in the 1860s” (256). As the conflict spilt into other areas of the North, more tribes and iwis became involved in the battle. The British “outnumbered and outgunned” the Maori, forcing them to take a defensive position throughout the New Zealand land wars (259). Ending in the Waikato, the wars “Fundamentally came down to the relationship between rangatiratanga and sovereignty” (256). In the process of all this, many resources were confiscated and lives were lost, to this day the consequences are still felt. In particular the bond and relationship between, the crown and Maori is forever tarnished.

2) Using Dick’s lecture and tutorial discussions to help you, explain how you think these events impacted on visual and material culture in Aotearoa/New Zealand. (50 words).

The land wars had an immense impact on visual and material culture in Aotearoa as it exemplified the power of a flag to Maori. Having a flag created a channel of communication that was not restricted by language and culture, it also is a “symbolic marker” of identity (284). Maori quickly grasped the concept of this, prompting the use of flags to shown “independent and sovereign people” (284). In an effort to reconcile, the crown gifted flags to Maori.

Works cited – Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Ancient Origins.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 256-285. Print.


237.131 – WEEK 5