237.131 – WEEK 5

1) Summarise Anderson, Atholl, Binney, Judith and Harris, Aroha. “Chapter 9: Wars and survival”. Tangata whenua: An illustrated history. Bridget Williams Books, 2014. Print.

Chapter 9 in Tangata Whenua focuses on the New Zealand civil wars and the survival of Maori throughout 1860 to 1872. The civil wars were between the crown and Maori over land ownership, starting with the Taranaki conflict. As the British crown adopted a violent method of resolution, fighting quickly spread through “the middle of the North Island in the 1860s” (256). As the conflict spilt into other areas of the North, more tribes and iwis became involved in the battle. The British “outnumbered and outgunned” the Maori, forcing them to take a defensive position throughout the New Zealand land wars (259). Ending in the Waikato, the wars “Fundamentally came down to the relationship between rangatiratanga and sovereignty” (256). In the process of all this, many resources were confiscated and lives were lost, to this day the consequences are still felt. In particular the bond and relationship between, the crown and Maori is forever tarnished.

2) Using Dick’s lecture and tutorial discussions to help you, explain how you think these events impacted on visual and material culture in Aotearoa/New Zealand. (50 words).

The land wars had an immense impact on visual and material culture in Aotearoa as it exemplified the power of a flag to Maori. Having a flag created a channel of communication that was not restricted by language and culture, it also is a “symbolic marker” of identity (284). Maori quickly grasped the concept of this, prompting the use of flags to shown “independent and sovereign people” (284). In an effort to reconcile, the crown gifted flags to Maori.

Works cited – Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Ancient Origins.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 256-285. Print.


237.131 – WEEK 5

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