237.131 Week 11

1. In each of your assignments for Studio this year you made work that responded to a concept integral to the pōwhiri process – Mihimihi, Tūrangawaewae, Ātea, and Hākari. Define the concept that corresponds with the project you feel was the best thing you made in Studio all year. (25 words)

Turangawaewae refers your belonging to a land as well as the understanding of all connections between places, it corresponds with the kaitiakitanga and whakapapa. Turangawaewae acknowledges existing relationships and knowledges rooted in specific sites.

2. Discuss the work you made: describe its physical attributes, the concept/s behind it, and the wide context in which you made it. (100 words)

Annie Wu Final Collage.jpgWu, Annie. Screen studio Tūrangawaewae, inspired by Motuihe Somes Island, Wellington. Collage. August 2016.

Motuihe Somes Island stands in Wellington harbour in all its beauty. The ferry over is idyllic in itself, but once on the island, an overwhelming sense of tranquility drifts over you. It’s hard to imagine such a place with a rather grim and tragic history. Motuihe Somes Island was once a pā of refuge for Maori, as well as a quarantine site and enemy alien “internee” camp in both world wars. The Tūrangawaewae brief pushed me to explore the ideas of kaitiakitanga and mana within a place. Thus connecting me with both the explicit existence of a space and the intangible knowledge’s of the island.

3. Erna Stachl discusses decolonisation and Mana Wahine in her lecture. How did you consider gender and/or indignity and/or the intersections between the two in your work? Use key ideas in the lecture and the texts by Ani Mikaere and Linda Tuhiwai-Smith to support your arguments. (75 words)

The role of gender was not a prominent topic in this piece as i focused primarily on the communication of the island itself. The intersection of gender and indignity in relation to knowledge rooted within the Island is a compelling notion. However, my work primarily reflected a lack of indignity. Focusing on the more contemporary history of Motuihe Somes Island being a quarantine and internee camp, i chose to emphasise the displacement and isolation of individuals.

237.131 Week 11

237.131 week 10

1. Inspired by Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture and Tze Ming Mok’s essay, create a piece of creative non-fiction in which you talk about your own cultural identity. You must make at least one connection with a significant moment in the history of Aotearoa (i.e like Tze Ming Mok did with the attack on Chi Phung, the National Front protest, and the Seabed and Foreshore hīkoi), and you must draw from your own lived experience (200 words).

She stands in the middle of two cultures. Born in New Zealand, of Chinese descent. She has an identity that is split in half, she is no more one than the other. Does this make her unique? Special? This makes her different.

New Zealand. A place where cultural difference is welcomed. But she knows first hand, this is a lie. Every day, she is defined by her apparent ethnicity, every day she remains in the margins.

She’s that “Asian bitch”.

Getting used to it is not that same as acceptance.

Like Sake Aca said racial taunts hurt. Racism corrupts all aspects of life, it made it onto the rugby pitch in mid-2015 and its made it into the streets in late 2016. It’s inevitably becoming more blatant.

Her and Aca are minorities now. But, there will come a time where minorities are history, there will come a time where equality will flourish. There will come a time where ALL are indifferent. That day is not today, perhaps not even in her lifetime. But, where there is hope there is change. And she is an advocate for that.

2. Go to the library and ask for one of the 237.131 2 hour loan books. Find the name of a creative practitioner in that book, then search for that name on the book catalogue PCs (upstairs, level B – don’t use Discover). Locate an image of their work (preferably in print) that fits with your creative writing. Scan this and upload it to your blog, remembering to include a caption.


Brownson, Ron. Home AKL: Artists of Pacific Heritage in Auckland. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland Art Gallery Toi O Tamaki, 2012. Print.

Edith Amituanai approaches intimacy as if she was an onlooker. This resonates with my writing, my cultural identity is the intimate topic and by removing my immediate presence, i present the audience will a peculiar unfamiliarity.

Works cited

Sherwood, Sam, Brendon Egan, Tony Smith, and Nicole Mathewson. “Fijian Rugby Player Sake Aca Speaks of Anguish at Racial Taunts.” Stuff. N.p., 28 July 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

237.131 week 10

237.131 – WEEK 9

1. Draw (collage/photograph/paint/whatevs) the stages of the pōwhiri in a series of illustrated panels. This can be as sophisticated or low-fi as you like 0 it just needs to clearly communicate the pōwhiri process to an unfamiliar audience. Imagine you are drawing it for people who have never been onto a marae. You may like to pick  a particular time period (i.e. the 1400s, 1890s, 1950s, 2010s, the future) and allow that to inform your stylistic decisions. Remember to induce relevant key terms and to clearly name each part or the pōwhiri. Use “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfield) to inform your drawing.


Stages of Powhiri (Left to right): Karanga, Tangi, Whaikōrero & Waiata, Harirū & Hongi, Kai.


A series of calls exchanged by the women from both Tangata Whenua and Maanuhiri (visitors) as they advance into the Marae. This often signifies the beginning of the Powhiri. Higgins and Moorfield  state that “Karanga makes acknowledges the manuhiri, the dead, and the object of the visit”.


Translates to weep. At this stage in the Powhiri “people will  remember the dead and may tangi (weep) (7).

Whaikōrero & Waiata 

“Whaikōrero expands on the information shared during the karanga” (7). Usually only iwi men are allowed to speak.

Waiata translates to sing.

Harirū & Hongi

Harirū refers to a hand shake.

Hongi is a greeting through the “pressing of noses”(9). It “represents the passing of breath the two people” (10).

Kai (food)

The sharing of kai is significant to manaakitanga (respect and hospitality). Everyone eats kai together.

2. Melanie Wall identifies some of the more common Māori stereotypes that have appeared in New Zealand’s media. Take one of the examples of representations of Māori from Dick’s lecture and discuss it in relation to Wall’s ideas (100 words).

“Quintessential Maori”

Dick’s lecture introduced Melanie Wall’s four key (colonial) stereotypes – comic other, the natural athlete, radical political activist and the quintessential. Focussing on Wall’s quintessential Maori stereotype, it brings forth the contemporary manifestation of a colonial perspective by seeing Maori as “primitive and exotic” (4). This stereotype notably objectifies Maori woman as a “Dusty Maiden”. Consequently, Maori women are sexualized and exploited through exoticism. Particularly, in the tourism industry where the Pakeha male gaze was prominent. This apparent “feminised reinvention of Maori identity” is solely based on the objectivity of the Maori female body and novelty of Maori culture (4).

Works cited

Moorfield, John C., and Rawinia Higgins. “Marae Practices.” Ngā Tikanga O Te Marae. N.p.: n.p., 2004. 1-12. Print.

Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the ‘Māori Race’ in the Media”. New Zealand Geographer. 53(2) 1999. Print.

Whyte, Dick. “Ideology and Stereotypes in Aoteroa ,New Zealand.” Massey University Lecture. 10A02, Wellington. 29 Sept. 2016. Lecture.

237.131 – WEEK 9