1. Draw (collage/photograph/paint/whatevs) the stages of the pōwhiri in a series of illustrated panels. This can be as sophisticated or low-fi as you like 0 it just needs to clearly communicate the pōwhiri process to an unfamiliar audience. Imagine you are drawing it for people who have never been onto a marae. You may like to pick a particular time period (i.e. the 1400s, 1890s, 1950s, 2010s, the future) and allow that to inform your stylistic decisions. Remember to induce relevant key terms and to clearly name each part or the pōwhiri. Use “Ngā tikanga o te marae” (Rawinia Higgins and John C. Moorfield) to inform your drawing.
Stages of Powhiri (Left to right): Karanga, Tangi, Whaikōrero & Waiata, Harirū & Hongi, Kai.
A series of calls exchanged by the women from both Tangata Whenua and Maanuhiri (visitors) as they advance into the Marae. This often signifies the beginning of the Powhiri. Higgins and Moorfield state that “Karanga makes acknowledges the manuhiri, the dead, and the object of the visit”.
Translates to weep. At this stage in the Powhiri “people will remember the dead and may tangi (weep) (7).
Whaikōrero & Waiata
“Whaikōrero expands on the information shared during the karanga” (7). Usually only iwi men are allowed to speak.
Waiata translates to sing.
Harirū & Hongi
Harirū refers to a hand shake.
Hongi is a greeting through the “pressing of noses”(9). It “represents the passing of breath the two people” (10).
The sharing of kai is significant to manaakitanga (respect and hospitality). Everyone eats kai together.
2. Melanie Wall identifies some of the more common Māori stereotypes that have appeared in New Zealand’s media. Take one of the examples of representations of Māori from Dick’s lecture and discuss it in relation to Wall’s ideas (100 words).
Dick’s lecture introduced Melanie Wall’s four key (colonial) stereotypes – comic other, the natural athlete, radical political activist and the quintessential. Focussing on Wall’s quintessential Maori stereotype, it brings forth the contemporary manifestation of a colonial perspective by seeing Maori as “primitive and exotic” (4). This stereotype notably objectifies Maori woman as a “Dusty Maiden”. Consequently, Maori women are sexualized and exploited through exoticism. Particularly, in the tourism industry where the Pakeha male gaze was prominent. This apparent “feminised reinvention of Maori identity” is solely based on the objectivity of the Maori female body and novelty of Maori culture (4).
Moorfield, John C., and Rawinia Higgins. “Marae Practices.” Ngā Tikanga O Te Marae. N.p.: n.p., 2004. 1-12. Print.
Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the ‘Māori Race’ in the Media”. New Zealand Geographer. 53(2) 1999. Print.
Whyte, Dick. “Ideology and Stereotypes in Aoteroa ,New Zealand.” Massey University Lecture. 10A02, Wellington. 29 Sept. 2016. Lecture.