1.) Choose one term from Moko Mead’s “Ngā Pūtanga o te tikanga: Underlying principals and values”, paraphrase this and explain how it can be applied to art/design. Use citations carefully to differentiate Meads ideas from your own (100 words).
Moko Mead in “Ngā Pūtanga o te Tikanga” states Tapū is the most important element. The notion of Tapū refers to the sacred and religious thought Maori custom holds. Mead suggests Tapū integrates different philosophies and makes an attempt to reconcile apparent contradictions, as well as being strongly connected to the mana of a person. Religion is often intertwined in toi through symbolism and representation, in turn, Tapū is also laced throughout toi. Mead suggests high levels of Tapū are dangerous, tikianga is used to monitor the levels of dangerous Tapū until a “state of ea” is reached (state of peace/equality). Over time, Tikanga and the rules of Tapū have changed, however, the significance of Tapū still remains as it enhances and deepens the process of toi, adding significance and value to the toi itself.
2.) Explain one way intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of taonga works. Use “Taonga works and intellectual property” to inform your response, including quotes and citations where appropriate (100 words).
The Copyright act exemplified in “Taonga works and intellectual property” permits the artist or creator to hold the “rights to exploit the work”. The copyright owner is able to exclude others from their work and control the uses, this includes publishing and copying. However, work in public spaces are excluded from the act, despite The Treaty of Waitangi’s reference to taonga works being protected. This results in works like Whare Whakairo being unprotected from misuse. “Taonga works that are displayed in a public place but not protected by copyright can be freely copied anyway.” Consequently the creators and artists lose important kaitiakitanga.
Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Ngā Pūtake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles And Values”. Tikanga Māori: Living By Māori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003. 25-34. Print.
“Taonga Works and Intellectual Property.” Ko Aotearoa Tēnei: Te Taumata Tuatahi: A Report into Claims concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity. Wellington, N.Z.: Legislation Direct, 2011. 29-59. Print.